Policy Cures Research and Wellcome have partnered to create a comprehensive database of all snakebite envenoming medicines with direct action on snake venom toxins that have either been investigated or been available for clinical use since in 2015.
We found a total of 127 antivenom products marketed or available for use, along with 196 candidate medicines (drugs and biologics) actively investigated within the last seven years since previous major reviews. This platform provides a much-needed tool to evaluate and prioritise candidates and products under development or in use, with a view to accelerating progress in snakebite therapeutics R&D.
Our research validates that currently available snakebite products are many, but uniform: they are entirely animal plasma-derived antibody-based antivenoms; highly species specific and immunoreactive; and require only limited safety and effectiveness to enter the market.
Encouragingly, novel SBE therapeutics under investigation are many and diverse, and include an array of both biological and small molecule product types: new plasma-derived antivenoms; recombinant (some humanised) antibody products; whole proteins or peptides; DNA aptamers; synthetic small molecules; and botanical extract isolates and compounds. While most are in early stages of research, repurposed drugs account for over a third of all candidates, possibly indicating a faster pace of development to come.
Our latest G-FINDER report is a comprehensive analysis of R&D investments to fight emerging infectious diseases in 2019 and 2020. For the first time, we provide an in-depth look at R&D funding for COVID-19, in addition to priority diseases such as Ebola, Zika and Disease X.
Policy Cures Research examines targeted global health product innovations and R&D investment landscapes in our Snapshot series.
A Decade of R&D Funding for Platform Technologies. Our latest snapshot uncovers how platform technologies have benefitted from increased levels of funding over the past 10 years and reveals why they offer promising pathways for faster product development across multiple disease areas.
Charting the R&D Response to COVID-19. Our analysis examines COVID-19 R&D investment and funding flows in the first year of the pandemic. The report covers global funding, types of products funded, funders and funding streams.
Impact of National Economic Trends on Publicly Funded Neglected Disease R&D: full report and executive summary. This analysis uncovers several robust historical relationships between government spending, ODA and neglected disease R&D funding.
Data on global investment in neglected disease R&D is collected through the G-FINDER survey and analysed in our annual G-FINDER reports, which describe how R&D investment is allocated across diseases and product types, funding trends over time, and potential gaps in funding.
The 2021 G-FINDER report covers neglected disease R&D funding from the 2020 financial year, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The report provides headline funding figures and trend analyses for global investment into research and development of new products to prevent, diagnose, control or cure neglected diseases in developing countries. All underlying data are available on our data portal for supplementary graphs and tables.
We contributed to the WHO’s 2021 World Malaria Report, an in-depth update on global and regional malaria data and trends. Using the latest G-FINDER data, we analysed funding flows, including by product type and by sector. Our work can be found page 64 onwards.
As part of this work, PCR has created a unique maternal health medicines database, which includes drugs, biologics, and dietary supplements investigated at any point and at any stage of development in the past 20 years (2000 – 2021), and includes detailed profiles for 444 unique medicines candidates. The database is accessible here and the report detailing the findings can be found here.
Our article in the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (IJGO) identifies and ranks candidates for the treatment of PPH. We conclude that the pipeline for new PPH medicines is concerningly limited, lacking diversity, and showing little evidence of novel technologies.
In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria: 2016-2030 (GTS), setting out a pathway to achieving the goal of reducing the global malaria burden by 90% by 2030, and estimating the investment that would be needed to make this happen. The R&D component of these cost estimates was based on work done by the Policy Cures Research team.
Our 2021 report provides a refreshed estimate of the R&D funding needs for the remaining years of the GTS period. It takes into account changes in the malaria R&D landscape in the years following the original modelling exercise, including new or evolving research priorities, improved assumptions and progression of the existing R&D pipeline.
A new G-FINDER report presenting the diverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) R&D funding landscape highlights a broad spectrum of investment in 2018.
Based on responses from governments, non-profits, foundations and industry, the 2020 G-FINDER SRH report provides the most up-to-date comprehensive look at the R&D landscape for SRH health issues that disproportionately affect people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Read the 2020 G-FINDER report: Sexual and Reproductive Health Research and Development: Understanding the Spectrum
Explore the data from the SRH report in our data portal
Policy Cures Research publishes country-specific funding profiles based on the data gathered as part of the G-FINDER survey.
G-FINDER 2019 key findings: EU funding of poverty-related and neglected disease R&D. This fact sheet provides a brief summary of the 2018 funding for neglected disease R&D provided by the European Commission, through Horizon 2020 and the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP). It breaks down changes in the balance of European Union funding between EDCTP and Horizon 2020 programmes and provides a summary of the allocation of EU funding across individual diseases and stages of R&D.
The findings explore the results of the first ever survey on global investment of snakebite research, which was conducted as part of this project. The project was based on the G-FINDER survey of neglected disease biomedical R&D, which was expanded to include snakebite-related operational, implementation and health systems and policy research, based on the areas of interest identified by the Wellcome Trust and a panel of independent international experts.
The survey collected 12 years of data (2007 to 2018), allowing for time-series analysis. This report provides an overview of the landscape of researchers active in snakebite envenoming research and explores trends across the 12-year period, highlighting areas of unmet need.
Snakebite envenoming was also included in the G-FINDER survey for neglected diseases for the first time in 2019. Investment in biomedical R&D for snakebite envenoming will continue to be tracked by G-FINDER in future years.
Policy Cures Research, together with the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, the Innovative Vector Control Consortium, the Medicines for Malaria Venture, and the WHO’s Global Malaria Programme, contributed to this 2018 report developed by Malaria No More UK, PATH and the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, which looks at global funding for malaria R&D over the last decade, and highlights gaps in financial reporting and monitoring tools to document funding for malaria research for implementation. The report covers findings from a pilot study on malaria research for implementation funding, which includes implementation research, operational research, and health systems research. It highlights the importance of improving coordination across intervention areas, developing more innovative funding approaches and continuing existing tracking of funding flows.
The report expands on an interim PCR publication, released earlier in 2018, titled Investigating a Second Valley of Death in Malaria R&D: How is research for implementation funded? This earlier report focused on the critical role played by implementation research, operational research, and health systems research in both shaping the development of new health technologies so they are designed for the conditions in which they will be used, and ensuring that they are introduced in the right place, at the right time, and in the right quantities.
Policy Cures Research worked with the Global Health Technologies Coalition to publish a joint report on Return on Innovation in July 2017, examining the return on investment for the United States from its support of global health R&D.
The report explores the investments made and the role played by key US institutions such as the Agency for International Development, the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense and the Centers for Disease Control, the achievements made with the help of US investments, and how this investment has contributed to a pipeline of products to address global health needs. The report finds that US government investment of around $14 billion in R&D for global health has been a smart investment, delivering economic and security returns for Americans while playing an essential role as a catalyst for the development of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics and other urgently-needed tools for fighting neglected disease.
Commissioned by Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung (DSW), the 2016 Saving Lives report updates a previous 2012 study, analysing how European Union funding for poverty-related and neglected diseases R&D compares with the direct investments made by European governments. The report assesses the impact that this investment has had on global health, and estimates the flow-on economic and employment benefits for Europe.
The European public sector plays a pivotal role in supporting R&D to deliver new tools to combat neglected diseases such as leprosy, diarrhoeal diseases, dengue, helminth infections and trachoma. In an era in which global public funding for neglected disease R&D is waning, and governments face competing demands for health and R&D budgets, this report provides a timely reminder of why the European contribution matters.